win|比分

                                  
                                  

                                  Businessmate Site Logo

                                  Home - About - Advertise

                                  Date: 2020-06-08
                                  Search Articles by topic

                                  Mangement and Leadership

                                  Production Management


                                  Business Strategy

                                  Accounting

                                  Marketing

                                  Human Resource Management


                                  Organizational Theory & Design


                                  National and Organizational Culture

                                  Important Business Terms

                                   

                                  Article Search
                                  Search Title & Content:
                                  Search Author:

                                  Custom Search

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                  Hawthorne Effect

                                  Elton Mayo

                                   
                                  Recommend this article to your friends!
                                   
                                  Elton Mayo, a trained industrial psychologist, and a member of the Harvard Business School faculty, conducted studies at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company outside Chicago in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Elton Mayo’s early theoretical standpoint was based on the Scientific Management tradition formed by Frederick Taylor.

                                  The initial purpose of Mayo’s experiments was to study factors affecting work, with a focus on physical factors such as stress and fatigue. The aim of the studies at the plant was to identify the optimum physical working conditions for productivity improvements. In line with the Scientific Management tradition, Elton Mayo therefore set out to discover normative psychical standards that have positive effects on productivity.

                                  The experiments initially concentrated on the relationship between productivity and work place lighting. Groups of workers were divided into an experimental room, which had the lightning improved, and into a control room with no alteration in lightning. Productivity rose, as expected, in the experiment room, but productivity also rose in the control room. Similar experiments showed the same surprising results, and the explanation for the surprising results were discovered after interviewing some participants.

                                  The participants replied that they were so pleased about being singled out for an experiment that they wanted to do the best for the researchers and the company. This was labelled the Hawthorne Effect, which shows that humans do not only act as rational economic actors, and that humans are also motivated by other factors such as feelings, sentiments and relations between humans.

                                  After having conducted his research, Elton Mayo concluded that the workplace is a social system of interdependent actors, in which workers are influenced more by their need for recognition, need for security, social norms and sense of belonging, than by the psychical work environment.

                                  The Hawthorne Effect is oftentimes referred to as the starting point of the Human Relations School, in which scientific efforts are put into analyzing the effect of human relations on e.g. job satisfaction, productivity and job motivation.

                                  Frederick Herzberg is another scientist who discovered the more subtle relationship between social norms, social needs and job motivation.

                                   

                                  ?
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                  Date Created: 2011-02-20
                                  Posted by: Admin
                                   
                                   
                                  Hawthorne Effect
                                   

                                  Related resources:

                                  Frederick Herzberg's Motivation and Hygiene Factors
                                  What is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
                                  Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory (VIE-model)
                                  Reference(s)
                                   
                                  Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural and Open System Perspectives
                                  W. Richard Scott & Gerald F. Davis; (2007), Pearson Prentice Hall
                                  Keywords:

                                  Online MBA, Online MBA Courses, Elton Mayo, Hawthorne Effect, Human relation, control room, experiment room, social norms, physical work conditions, social needs, relations, job motivation, productivity

                                   






                                  Advertise on Businessmate.org


                                   
                                   

                                  Copyright © BusinessMate 2009-2019

                                   
                                  Home - About - Terms of Use - Contact - Sitemap - Privacy Policy

                                                                  
                                                                  

                                                                  reading

                                                                  Information

                                                                  Variety show

                                                                  Real estate

                                                                  the weather

                                                                  game

                                                                  aviation

                                                                  car

                                                                  explore