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                                  5 Cultural Dimensions

                                  Geert Hofstede

                                   
                                  Recommend this article to your friends!
                                   

                                  In the 1980ies Geert Hofstede discovered 5 fundamental dimensions of national cultures that can be seen to illustrate different values in different national cultures. This discovery was made through utilizing factor analysis techniques on samples drawn from the multinational corporation IBM.

                                   

                                  The dimensions found by Geert Hofstede can be used to illustrate which values lie deeply embedded in people from different cultures. These values may have consequences for how people in different cultures behave, and how they will potentially behave in a work related context.

                                   

                                  The five values found by Geert Hofstede are:

                                   

                                  1. Power Distance
                                  2. Uncertainty Avoidance
                                  3. Masculinity vs. Femininity
                                  4. Individualism vs. Collectivism
                                  5. Long vs. Short Term Orientation

                                  Power Distance

                                  In cultures with low power distance, people are likely to expect that power is distributed rather equally, and are furthermore also likely to accept that power is distributed to less powerful individuals. As opposed to this, people in high power distance cultures will likely both expect and accept inequality and steep hierarchies.

                                                                             

                                  Uncertainty Avoidance

                                  Uncertainty Avoidance is referring to a lack of tolerance for ambiguity and a need for formal rules and policies. This dimension measures the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations. These uncertainties and ambiguities may e.g. be handled by an introduction of formal rules or policies, or by a general acceptance of ambiguity in the organizational life.

                                  The majority of people living in cultures with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance, are likely to feel uncomfortable in uncertain and ambiguous situations.

                                  People living in cultures with a low degree of uncertainty avoidance, are likely to thrive in more uncertain and ambiguous situations and environments.

                                   

                                  Masculinity vs. Femininity

                                  These values concern the extent on emphasis on masculine work related goals and assertiveness (earnings, advancement, title, respect et.), as opposed to more personal and humanistic goals (friendly working climate, cooperation, nurturance etc.)

                                  The first set of goals is usually described as masculine, whereas the latter is described as feminine. These goals and values can, among other, describe how people are potentially motivated in cultures with e.g. a feminine or a masculine culture.

                                   

                                  Individualism vs. Collectivism

                                  In individualistic cultures people are expected to portray themselves as individuals, who seek to accomplish individual goals and needs. In collectivistic cultures, people have greater emphasis on the welfare of the entire group to which the individual belongs, where individual wants, needs and dreams are often set aside for the common good.

                                   

                                  Long vs. Short Term Orientation

                                  Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension, which was added after the original four dimensions. This dimension was identified by Michael Bond and was initially called Confucian dynamism. Geert Hofstede added this dimension to his framework, and labeled this dimension long vs. short term orientation .

                                  The consequences for work related values and behavior springing from this dimension are rather hard to describe, but some characteristics are described below.

                                   

                                  Long term orientation:

                                        Acceptance of that business results may take time to achieve

                                        The employee wishes a long relationship with the company

                                   

                                  Short term orientation:

                                        Results and achievements are set, and can be reached within timeframe

                                        The employee will potentially change employer very often.

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                  Geert Hofstede has made scores for the following countries:

                                   

                                  The scores of each country can be found on Geert Hofstede's webpage www.geert-hofstede.com

                                   

                                  Country

                                  Arab World

                                  Argentina

                                  Australia

                                  Austria

                                  Austria

                                  Bangladesh

                                  Belgium

                                  Brazil

                                  Bulgaria

                                  Canada

                                  Chile

                                  China

                                  Colombia

                                  Costa Rica

                                  Czech Republic

                                  Denmark

                                  East Africa

                                  Ecuador

                                  El Salvador

                                  Estonia

                                  Finland

                                  France

                                  Germany

                                  Greece

                                  Guatemala

                                  Hong Kong

                                  Hungary

                                  India

                                  Indonesia

                                  Iran

                                  Ireland

                                  Israel

                                  Italy

                                  Jamaica

                                  Japan

                                  Luxembourg

                                  Malaysia

                                  Malta

                                  Mexico

                                  Morocco

                                  Netherlands

                                  New Zealand

                                  Norway

                                  Pakistan

                                  Panama

                                  Peru

                                  Philippines

                                  Poland

                                  Portugal

                                  Romania

                                  Russia

                                  Singapore

                                  Slovakia

                                  South Africa

                                  South Korea

                                  Spain

                                  Surinam

                                  Sweden

                                  Switzerland

                                  Taiwan

                                  Thailand

                                  Trinidad

                                  Turkey

                                  United Kingdom

                                  United States

                                  Uruguay

                                  Venezuela

                                  Vietnam

                                  West Africa

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   

                                   
                                  ?
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                  Date Created: 2009-09-16
                                  Posted by: Admin
                                   
                                   
                                  5 Cultural Dimensions
                                   

                                  Related resources:

                                  What are Fons Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions?
                                  Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture
                                  National Culture Vs. Organizational Culture
                                  Reference(s)
                                   
                                  Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations
                                  Hofstede, Geert; (2001); Sage Publications
                                  Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its Importance for Survival
                                  Hofstede, Geert; (1991); McGraw-Hill
                                  Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values
                                  Hofstede, Geert; (1980); Sage
                                  Keywords:

                                  Online MBA, Online MBA Courses, Geert Hofstede, Cultural Dimensions, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity and Femininity, Individualism and Collectivism, Long and Short Term Orientation

                                   






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